Peter Boockvar (via The Big Picture) details this quarter's GDP print (slightly edited / reformatted):
After three quarters (in a row) that averaged just 1.2%, fourth quarter GDP grew 2.8%, a touch below expectations of 3.0%, but Nominal GDP grew well below forecasts. Because the price deflator was up just 0.4% vs the estimate of 1.9%, Nominal GDP was up 3.2% vs the estimate of 4.9%.Details below... we can see the HUGE impact of inventory rebuild (potential is there for this to be a HUGE drag in Q1 '12) and the continued drag of local government (i.e. austerity measures).
- Personal Consumption rose 2.0% vs the forecast of 2.4%.
- Fixed Investment rose 3.3% (helped by a 5.2% increase in equipment and software spending and residential construction rose by 10.9%).
- Trade was a slight drag on GDP growth and government spending was as well, led by a 12.5% decline on national defense spending.
- State and local government spending fell by 2.6%.
- Inventories added almost 2% to growth and, taking out this influence, Real Final Sales rise just 0.8% vs 3.2% in Q3.Thus, inventories were a large swing factor in the Q4 rebound. Bottom line, Real GDP was near estimates, but nominal GDP was the weakest since Q3 ’09 and Real Final Sales were the 2nd softest since Q1 ’10.
The below chart shows the longer term breakdown of GDP, showing the importance of consumption on growth. We can see the huge shift in consumption from goods (i.e. things) to services (i.e. outsourcing of "actions" to make out lives easier). Of note, for all the chatter about how large government has become, the Federal government (excluding defense) has not really become a larger as a component of GDP.